Flora of Viroth


A perennial woodland plant of the berry family, with large umbrella-shaped leaves and a single, large white cuplike flower. It has an edible, lemon-yellow, egg shaped fruit about two inches long, called the "apples", with a flavor not unlike strawberries. It grows to about a foot and a half in height.

Found: Found in low shady lands, roadsides, fields and clearings.


Flax is a small annual plant which reaches no more than two feet in height. The slender leafy stem has few branches and bears numerous linear leaves. Each branch has one or two, delicate blue or violet-blue, five-petaled flowers during the Summer months. The fruit is typically a ten seeded capsule; the seeds themselves smooth, flattened and a bright blue in colour.

Found: Cultivational plant, can be found in fields and countrysides.


A stiff shrub growing from three to five feet tall. Bark is brownish-gray and smooth; leaves narrow at the base. Leaves oblong to lance-shaped, one to four inches long, dark green and shiny above, paler and sometimes hairy beneath. Flowers appear in early spring. It's small green berries are covered, when mature, with a pale blue, lavender or grayish-white aromatic wax and is used in making candles which burn with a pleasing fragrance.

Found: Sandy swamps, thickets, marshes and wet woodlands.


An evergreen shrub usually grows to eight feet in height. The bark is chocolate-brown tinged with red shredding off in papery peels. The needle-shaped leaves have white stripes on top and are a shiny yellow-green beneath. Pale yellow flowers, occur in whorls on one plant, green female flowers on another plant.

The fruit is a small, fleshy, berry-like cone which is green the first year and ripens to a bluish-black or dark purple color in the second year.

Found: Found in dry, infertile, rocky soil.


It is an evergreen shrub or small tree up to 20 feet high; it has elliptic leaves with a narrowed base and a bluntly pointed tip. The flowers are whitish and inconspicuous and the fruit is a rounded, reddish berry-like drupe up to 1/4 inch in diameter.

Found: It grows wild in the river forests; it is also extensively cultivated.

Blue Iris

It is a perennial, growing to two feet in height. It has narrow, sword-shaped leaves and during the Summer months violet flowers streaked with yellow and white. It is both beautiful and potentially poisonous. The flowers yield a blue infusion which can test for acids and alkalines, but it is the root which has been most widely used. When fresh, the root has a slight odor and a pungent, and acrid taste. The root is usually collected in Autumn and dried.

Found: It prefers wet, swampy locations. Wet meadows, moist soil.


A compact, deciduous tree, grows to fifteen feet; it's trunk has hard wood, smooth and ash-gray bark, and thorny branches. The small, shiny leaves are dark green on top, light bluish-green underneath, and have 3 toothed lobes. The frail white flowers, known as "may", have five round petals and grow in clusters during mid-Summer. The fruit, or haw, is egg-shaped, scarlet on the outside, yellowish and pulpy on the inside and hang in small bunches from the thorny shrub. Beware of the sharp thorns when harvesting hawthorn, eye scratches from thorns can cause blindness.

Found: Found by the roadside or in the meadows, along streams, in bottomlands and open woods.


A perennial slow growing plant with a large spindle-shaped fleshy root and a smooth erect stem; one to two feet in height. Root sometimes resembling human form, spindle-shaped or forked. At the top of the stem are three large leaves consisting of 4-5 sharp-toothed lance-shaped leaflets. In the leaf axil grows an umbel of yellow-green, scented flowers. Two-seeded fruits follow the blossoms.

Found: Rich and damp woods.


A trailing perennial plant; the slender branches feature sharp, recurved prickles. The leaves are finely hairy or almost glabrous and pinnate with 3-5 leaflets. The white, five-petaled flowers appear from late Summer. The fruit is an aggregate of black drupelets collectively called the blackberry.

Found: Grows in dry or sandy soil, along woodland edges, in hedge rows, along roadsides, and on disturbed ground.


The dried inner bark of the branches of a small evergreen laurel tree. The bark is peeled off and as the pieces are dried, they curl up into quills.

Found: Found growing around marshes.


Buck bean is a perennial water plant; the black, branching, jointed rootstock sends up a flower stem dilated at the base, as well as the dark green leaves with obovate leaflets. The flowers are white inside, rose-colored outside. Flowers bloom in Early Spring.

Found: Found on the shorelines, bogs, shallow water, in the ditches and marshy meadows.


A perennial plant; the strong, fibrous root produces a rosette of fleshy basal leaves. The narrow leaves are one foot in length with whitish-green on both sides, and bearing spiny teeth on the margins. The yellow to purplish, drooping flowers, which are evident most of the year, grow in a long raceme at the top of a flower stalk up to four feet high. The fruit is a triangular capsule containing numerous seeds.

Found: Found in drier climates and loose sandy soil.